SANTA CLARA — Signing NFL draft picks to contracts is mostly a formality thanks to the 2011 installation of a pay scale, and, as a result, the 49ers have not had a top draft pick hold out even a full day before signing.Nick Bosa, this year’s No. 2 overall draft pick, will not buck that trend.A day before the 49ers start training camp, Bosa signed a four-year deal Thursday, as did wide receiver Deebo Samuel, a wide receiver.Bosa missed almost all of the organized team activities after …
Two papers in Geology this month cast serious doubt on assumptions used to date rocks.Hundreds, Not Hundreds of ThousandsA “giant ore deposit” in Hungary thought to require hundreds of thousands of years of slow, gradual deposition to form has been re-examined. Conclusion: it formed in just hundreds of years due to the action of microbes. The abstract posted today in the journal Geology says it all:The Úrkút (Hungary) manganese (Mn) ore, hosted by Jurassic black shale, was studied using high-resolution mineralogical, microtextural, and chemical methods. Two independent superimposed biostructures were identified consisting of rhythmic laminations that provide important proxies for paleoenvironments and duration of ore formation. Millimeter-scale laminae reflect a depositional series of Fe-rich biomats, mineralized microbially produced sedimentary structures. These biomats formed at the sediment-water interface under dysoxic and neutral pH conditions by enzymatic Fe2+ oxidizing processes that may have developed on a daily to weekly growth cycle. The early diagenetic sedimentary ore is composed of Ca rhodochrosite, celadonite, and smectite, and also shows a 100-μm-scale element oscillation that produces Mn(Ca)-rich and Si(Fe clay)-rich microlaminae. This microlamination may reflect a 10 h to daily rhythmicity produced by the growth of microbial communities. If true, then the giant Úrkút ore deposit may have formed over hundreds of years, rather than hundreds of thousands of years as previously thought.Source: Polgári et al., Microbial action formed Jurassic Mn-carbonate ore deposit in only a few hundred years (Úrkút, Hungary), Geology, 10.1130/G33304.1 v. 40 no. 10 p. 903-906 .Cosmogenic Clock ResetA dating method that relies on constant bombardment by cosmic rays has new troubles. Geologists had thought that cosmogenic radiation damage in the rocks accumulated at a steady rate. They overlooked the scrambling of data due to debris flows, reports a Swiss team. In Geology, the abstract of their paper, “Debris-flow–dependent variation of cosmogenically derived catchment-wide denudation rates” explains the problem:Catchment-wide denudation rates (CWDRs) obtained from cosmogenic nuclides are an efficient way to determine geomorphic processes quantitatively in alpine mountain ranges over Holocene time scales. These rate estimations assume steady geomorphic processes. Here we use a time series (3 yr) in the Aare catchment (central Swiss Alps) to test the impact of spatially heterogeneous stochastic sediment supply on CWDRs. Our results show that low-frequency, high-magnitude debris-flow events significantly perturb cosmogenic nuclide (10Be, 14C) concentrations and thus CWDRs. The 10Be concentrations decrease by a factor of two following debris-flow events, resulting in a doubling of inferred CWDRs. The variability indicates a clear time and source dependency on sediment supply, with restricted area-weighted mixing of sediment. Accordingly, in transient environments, it is critical to have an understanding of the history of geomorphic processes to derive meaningful CWDRs. We hypothesize that the size of debris flows, their connectivity with the trunk stream, and the ability of the system to sufficiently mix sediment from low- and high-order catchments control the magnitude of CWDR perturbations. We also determined in situ 14C in a few samples. In conjunction with 10Be, these data suggest partial storage for colluvium of a few thousand years within the catchment prior to debris-flow initiation.Source: Kober et al., Debris-flow–dependent variation of cosmogenically derived catchment-wide denudation rates, Geology, doi: 10.1130/G33406.1 v. 40 no. 10 p. 935-938.Most of us learn the lesson, “never assume,” the hard way. Both dating methods assumed simple, uniform, slow-and-gradual processes produced these deposits. In one case, errors were found at least 3 orders of magnitude, leading to the conclusion that a giant ore deposit took only a few hundred years to form, not hundreds of thousands of years. In the second case, assumption of “steady geomorphic processes” was exaggerated by a factor of two or more.None of this is to allege that these geologists have changed their minds about the standard evolutionary billions-of-years timeline. The first authors, for instance, believe the quick deposition of the ore occurred in the Jurassic, over 100 million years ago. The second authors are only cautioning about calculating dates with steady-state assumptions. The lesson here concerns philosophy of science: measurements by fallible humans who weren’t there and don’t know all the factors can produce erroneous conclusions that become ensconced in textbooks as The Truth About the World. No; the second paper states: “it is critical to have an understanding of the history of geomorphic processes to derive meaningful” rates. But there’s the rub; is this possible? What human being is capable of gaining “an understanding of the history of geomorphic processes” for any location, when he or she was not there to watch? There could always be some other geomorphic (landscape-forming) process that was not considered, such as the debris flows discussed here. What else will be suggested in future studies? Can anybody except an Eyewitness ever claim that, yes, “now we know” ALL the processes that contributed to a given landscape? The question answers itself. (Visited 39 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterest
Distraught and inconsolable, yet Shehnaz Begum, mother-in-law of 24-year-old Tabrez Ansari, victim of Jharkhand mob lynching, could gather all her strength to speak.“My son-in-law would have been alive had the administration showed a little bit of sympathy and given the minimum medical attention,” said Ms. Begum holding her teenage widowed daughter tight.“First it was the religiously motivated mob that meted out instant justice, and secondly, the administration committed cold-blooded murder by letting Tabrez die of excruciating pain. To save his life, the police at least could have admitted him in any hospital,” she said.The non-descript Kadamdia village, 15 km from the district headquarters town of Saraikela, where Tabrez’s family lives, has been receiving media and political attention. Three days after Tabrez’s death, District Collector of Saraikela-Kharasawan Chhabi Ranjan and Superintendent of Police Karthik S reached Kadamdia late on Monday evening to assure the family of justice, while another group of district officials landed in the village early Tuesday morning. And hordes of media professionals and rights activists have been thronging the place.“My son-in-law did not deserve such death,” Ms. Begum kept saying to everyone.Tabrez, who had lost both his parents at a very early age, had migrated to Pune to eke out his livelihood eight years ago. In April, he returned to his village to get married. On April 27, his marriage was solemnized with Sahista Pervez, 19. The couple would have gone back to Pune in few days.According to his extended family members, he was returning after meeting his aunt from Jamshedpur on June 17 night when some people of Dhatkidih village caught hold of him and branded him a thief.“Tabrez could have been let off with a few slaps. All hell broke loose when he revealed his name. He was tied to an electric pole and beaten up the whole night. Later, he was dragged to nearby bushy areas and another round of thrashing started. He was also forced to chant ‘Jai Sriram and Jai Hanuman’,” said Md Mansoor Alam, Tabrez’s uncle, who had gone to meet him at the police station after his rescue.‘Main accused was present at Saraikela police station’Tabrez’s family members got the shock of their life when they met him at the Saraikela police station. “Initially, I was not allowed to enter the police station. Then I heard someone saying ‘Ab tak yeh mara kyon nahin? [why did he not die till now?]’. When inquired, I found that it was Papa Mandal, the main accused, who was shouting right inside the police station. I could not hold myself back. I entered the police station forcibly only to find Tabrez having bruises all over his body and blood stains on his face, hands and legs,” Ms. Begam said. His young wife fainted then and there.After a day, the family members again met him in jail. “His condition was even worse. I pleaded with the authorities to admit him in hospital, but nobody paid any heed to my request,” said Ms. Begum.Tabrez was admitted in the District Headquarters Hospital only when his condition suddenly deteriorated on June 22.After the video of the lynching went viral on the social media and Tabrez was heard chanting ‘Jai Sriram and Jai Hanuman’, as directed by the mob, media started taking note of the incident. Only then, police swung into action.Eleven arrested“We have so far arrested 11 persons, including main accused Papa Mandal. Investigation is going on and more people will be rounded up if their complicity in the crime is established,” said Mr. Karthik.When his attention was drawn to the alleged administrative bias in handling Tabrez’s case, especially his poor health condition, Mr. Karthik said, “We are not the authority to give medical certificate. Doctors carried out medical tests on him. Tests such as x-ray and ECG were carried out multiple times.”On the accusation of the police recording only the ‘confession’ on the victim’s theft activities and not trying to know the attackers who thrashed Tabrez after knowing his religious identity, Mr. Karthik admitted that the subordinate staff had messed up the whole thing. He said two police officers had been put under suspension.
TagsTransfersAbout the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your say Real Madrid chief Butragueno: Our players are stupendousby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveReal Madrid chief Emilio Butragueno has defended the players after defeat to Real Sociedad.La Real shocked Madrid 2-0 at the Santiago Bernabeu on Sunday.Butragueno was asked about additions this month given their poor start to the year.But he insisted, “This squad has players with loads of talent and I think that it is a good day to reinforce that message. “They have won many titles. The Club World Cup isn’t nothing, three consecutive Champions Leagues. These players are stupendous.”
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Pogba dig at Mourinho after Man Utd win: When you play free and you have manager’s trust…by Paul Vegas9 months agoSend to a friendShare the lovePaul Pogba was delighted with Manchester United’s victory at Tottenham.Pogba laid on Marcus Rashford’s first-half matchwinning goal.“I love playing big matches,” he told Sky Sports after the game. “I love playing against the best players, that is where we improve, progress and get more experience. “Obviously it was a good one for us and everyone played well, we were all determined because we wanted to win this game. I think the players helped me and we all enjoy playing football and playing together and that is what we did today.”Pogba added: “Everything comes when you play free and you have the trust of the manager and players who make it easy for me. I know [Nemanja] Matic will be there and we can press high and when we get the ball I am already there so I can shoot, I can pass and that is what I have been doing since the manager came. I know I have security behind me so I have the freedom to go so the manager has helped me.”