Lévy flights and fractional Brownian motion have become exemplars of the heavy-tailed jumps and longrangedmemory widely seen in physics. Natural time series frequently combine both effects, and linear fractionalstable motion lfsm is a model process of this type, combining alpha-stable jumps with a memory kernel.In contrast complex physical spatiotemporal diffusion processes where both the above effects compete have formany years been modeled using the fully fractional kinetic equation for the continuous-time random walkCTRW, with power laws in the probability density functions of both jump size and waiting time. We derivethe analogous kinetic equation for lfsm and show that it has a diffusion coefficient with a power law in timerather than having a fractional time derivative like the CTRW. We discuss some preliminary results on thescaling of burst “sizes” and “durations” in lfsm time series, with applications to modeling existing observationsin space physics and elsewhere.
Jun 17, 2008 (CIDRAP News) – China’s agriculture ministry today announced an H5N1 avian influenza outbreak at a village in Guangdong province, not far from Hong Kong, where officials recently found the virus in live-bird markets.The ministry said the outbreak in Guangdong struck 3,873 ducks in Yashan Village, where 17,127 ducks were culled to prevent the spread of the virus, Xinhua, China’s state news agency, reported today. The ministry did not say when the outbreak began.Mainland China’s last reported outbreak occurred in early April at a poultry farm in Tibet, according to a report from the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). A few weeks before that outbreak, officials reported an outbreak in Guangdong province that hit chickens at a market in the city of Guangzhou.On Jun 7, animal health officials in Hong Kong, located on Guangdong’s south-central border on the Pearl River delta, announced they had found the H5N1 virus in chicken droppings gathered at poultry markets. A few days later they found the virus in droppings at additional markets, which led to the culling of all market poultry.Authorities suspended all shipments of birds from the mainland and local farms for 3 weeks. Officials haven’t yet found the source of the virus.Elsewhere, the news media in Vietnam are reporting an H5N1 outbreak at a household in the central province of Quang Ngai, according to a report from Xinhua today. The virus has struck 690 chickens since Jun 12 and was also responsible for outbreak in Tra Vinh province, in southern Vietnam, the newspaper The People, Vietnam’s Communist Party publication, reported.Bui Ba Bong, an agriculture minister, told the Vietnam Economic Times that though the number of new outbreaks has declined, the country should maintain its prevention efforts and spur more research on the disease, Xinhua reported. He said the country is exploring more than 30 variants of the avian flu virus that have been isolated from poultry and wild birds.In other developments, the United Kingdom today published an epidemiology report on a highly pathogenic H7N7 outbreak that was confirmed at a farm in Oxfordshire on Jun 4. The report from the Department of Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) said that as of Jun 11 the outbreak was confined to a single farm, but an investigation into the source of the virus would continue, according to a DEFRA press release.The report said the highly pathogenic H7N7 strain found at the farm could have evolved from a low-pathogenic strain that was already present there, though authorities are investigating a number of other possibilities, the press release said.Nigel Gibbens, DEFRA’s chief veterinary officer, said in the press release that the United Kingdom has a steady but low risk for avian influenza outbreaks. “The report highlights the need for flock owners and poultry vets to remain vigilant for signs of the disease, including the possibility of low pathogenic avian influenza,” he said.Meanwhile, the agriculture ministry in Haiti on Jun 12 reported three outbreaks of low-pathogenic H5N2 avian flu in birds at three locations in the central, northern, and southern parts of the country, according to a report from the OIE. The outbreaks began on May 20 and appeared to be ongoing.Among the three sites, 87 birds were exposed to the virus and 11 were sickened. No deaths were reported, according to the report. Birds at the locations included chickens, a turkey, and fighting cocks. Some did not show clinical signs of disease.The report listed illegal animal movements and the introduction of new live animals as sources of the infection. Some officials in Haiti have suspected the H5N2 virus could have come from the Dominican Republic, which reported H5N2 outbreaks in late 2007, according to a Jun 15 report from Prensa Latina, a news agency based in Cuba. However, Haitian ambassador Jose Serulle said the virus could have come from anywhere.See also:OIE reports on 2008 Chinese H5N1 outbreaksJun 11 CIDRAP News story “Hong Kong finds more H5N1, culls all market poultry”Jun 17 DEFRA press release
Apr 22, 2009 (CIDRAP News) – Swine influenza viruses have never been documented as the cause of a human influenza pandemic, but in 1976 they generated pandemic fears strong enough to trigger a nationwide vaccination campaign.The reporting of swine flu cases in two California children this week stirred memories of the 1976 episode, which caused major embarrassment for public health authorities when the pandemic never materialized.The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced yesterday that two children in southern California fell ill in late March with what turned out to be swine flu infections. Both of the children recovered, and neither was hospitalized.But the cases raised concern because neither child had any known exposure to pigs, suggesting that human-to-human transmission might have occurred. Further, the virus was found to be a new strain of swine influenza A/H1N1 that differs substantially from human H1N1 strains. That suggested that much of the population could be susceptible to it and that the H1N1 antigen in seasonal flu vaccines probably would not protect people, the CDC said.CDC and California officials offered little new information on the cases and investigation today. Officials are testing contacts of the two children, including four family members who also were recently sick, to see if they have antibodies indicating they were infected with the H1N1 virus. CDC spokesman Tom Skinner said it would be several days or possibly weeks before the results are available.Human swine flu infections are rare but have become slightly more frequent in recent years, with 14 cases (including the two in California) since December 2005, according to the CDC. Almost always the infection has been associated with exposure to pigs, which are very commonly infected. Ken August, a spokesman for the California Department of Public Health, said today that until the two latest cases, no human cases of swine flu had been identified in California in several years.Very rarely have people with swine flu infections been known to pass the infection to someone else. One such case occurred in Wisconsin in 1988, when a pregnant woman fell ill after visiting a swine exhibition, according to a CDC question-and-answer article on swine flu. She was hospitalized with pneumonia and died 8 days later. Follow-up studies suggested that “one to three” healthcare workers who had contact with her had mild flu-like illnesses and antibody evidence of swine flu infection.Far better known is the swine flu episode of 1976. About 200 soldiers in basic training at Fort Dix in New Jersey fell ill in January and February, according to a 2006 article by Richard Krause, who was director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the time. At least four soldiers had pneumonia, and one died, according to the CDC article.The virus was identified as an H1N1 swine flu virus, “thought to be a direct descendant of the virus that caused the pandemic of 1918,” wrote Krause. “This conclusion was based on antibodies to H1N1 antigens found in survivors of the 1918 pandemic and the belief that the 1918 virus was eventually transmitted to pigs in the Midwest, where it persisted and caused sporadic human cases.”Public health experts, fearing a possible replay of the 1918 pandemic, engaged in an intense debate about how to respond. Eventually they launched a nationwide vaccination campaign, which was announced by President Gerald Ford in March. By the end of the year, 48 million people had been vaccinated, according to an account in Arthur Allen’s book Vaccine: The Controversial Story of Medicine’s Greatest Lifesaver.But the feared pandemic never materialized. “The virus is thought to have circulated for a month and disappeared,” the CDC article says. “The Fort Dix outbreak may have been an animal anomaly caused by introduction of an animal virus into a stressed human population in close contact in crowded facilities during the winter.”Not only did the pandemic fail to appear, but the vaccine apparently harmed some people. Health officials suspended the vaccination campaign on Dec 16, 1976, after receiving numerous reports of Guillian-Barre syndrome (GBS), a paralyzing neurologic illness, after vaccination, according to an August 1979 report in the American Journal of Epidemiology. Nationwide surveillance detected 1,098 patients with GBS onset from October 1976 through January 1977. Epidemiologic evidence suggested that many cases were related to vaccination, with an estimated risk of 1 case for every 100,000 vaccinations.Studies of influenza vaccines used after 1976 showed no increased risk for GBS in adults except for borderline statistically significant increases in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 flu seasons, according a report in the Jul 15, 2008, issue of Journal of Infectious Diseases. However, experts still don’t know what caused the GBS cases after the swine flu vaccination. One theory was that bacterial antigens from contaminated eggs used in vaccine production could have elicited GBS.In any case, the episode left the public health establishment demoralized. “The debacle opened public health authorities to the kind of criticism and even ridicule that they had never had to countenance before,” wrote Allen.The concern stirred by this week’s report of the two swine flu cases in California readily recalled the 1976 episode. But Marie Gramer, DVM, PhD, a University of Minnesota veterinarian who has studied swine flu, cautioned against drawing many parallels as yet.”It’s kind of too early for that,” she said. “Certainly in 1976 what got people riled up was that it was adults getting sick. That was outside the norm. This [the California cases] affected children, and children get a lot of influenza.”She said she personally is not overly concerned about the latest cases. “But I think it’s important to get this information out there and that people be aware that flu can be shared between humans and pigs,” she added.While influenza is notoriously unpredictable, there is no firm evidence of a swine flu virus having triggered a human flu pandemic, according to multiple reports. The virus that swept around the world in 1918 is believed to have been an avian strain that somehow adapted to humans. The two pandemics since then, in 1957-58 and 1968-69, resulted from genetic reassortment of avian and human strains, though the reassortment could have occurred in an intermediate host such as pigs. No good evidence is available for the many pandemics before 1918.If by any chance the virus in the California proves capable of spreading from person to person, the existing seasonal flu vaccine will not be likely to protect people, even though the vaccine contains an H1N1 component, according to the CDC. “The H1N1 swine flu viruses are antigenically very different from human H1N1 viruses,” the CDC article states.Most of the flu viruses recently found in pigs have been H1N1 and H3N2 strains, the CDC says. Current swine flu H3N2 viruses are closely related to human H3N2 viruses, because they were introduced into pigs from humans in the late 1990s. But H1N1 swine viruses have been known to circulate in pigs at least since the 1930s.The seasonal flu vaccine also includes an H3N2 component. Since the human and swine H3N2 strains are closely related, “the seasonal influenza vaccine will likely help provide partial protection against swine H3N2, but not swine H1N1 viruses,” according to the CDC.See also: CDC questions and answers about swine fluhttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/swine/key_facts.htmRichard Krause EID article on the 1976 swine flu episodehttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no01/05-1132.htmAug 1979 Am J Epidemiol study abstractJul 15, 2008, J Infect Dis study abstracthttp://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/589624CDC guidance on infection control and antiviral treatment for patients with suspected swine flu infectionshttp://www.cdc.gov/flu/swine/recommendations.htm
It didn’t take the Beaver Valley Nitehawks long to get into the so-called “zone” at the 2014 Cyclone Taylor Cup.Riley Brandt scored 12 seconds into the game sparking the Nitehawks to a 4-1 victory over Aldergrove Kodiaks in the opening game of the four-team B.C. Junior B Hockey Championship Tournament Thursday afternoon at the NDCC Arena.Brandt shocked the Pacific Junior Hockey League reps, firing a screened shot past surprised Kodiak starting goalie Jordan Liem on the first rush of the game.“That (goal) was huge,” said Hawks sniping center Dallas Calvin when asked about the quick start against Aldergrove.“To get off to a good start like that just got us going from there.”The win gives the Kootenay International Junior Hockey League Champion the start it wanted in a tournament that punishes teams that fall into slumps. “Every game counts . . . you don’t have that seven-game series where you can have a bad game and bounce back,” Calvin explained. “So you’ve got to win every game to have a chance to be there in the final.”Brandt, finishing the game with three points, scored on the power play in the first period to give the Hawks a quick 2-0 lead six minutes into the game.The teams traded goals in the second period.Adam Callegari scored for Aldergrove to cut the margin in half.But Calvin scored his 20th goal of the post season 90 seconds later to restore the two-goal advantage.Dan Holland completed the scoring in the final stages of the third period.Brett Clark was solid between the pipes, stopping 30 shots to register the win for the Hawks.Beaver Valley now faces host KIJHL rival Nelson Leafs Friday at 7:30 p.m. in the NDCC Arena as the tournament enters Day two.“We expect Nelson to come out hard,” Calvin said. “They haven’t played in a while but we expect them to come out with nothing but their best.”
We made Frank Lampard Chelsea’s man of the match against Barcelona, with Ashley Cole a close second. But several players produced outstanding displays in a brilliant victory for the Blues. Here’s how we rated them…Petr Cech: 8Produced several fine saves – including a brilliant late stop to keep out Puyol’s header and deny Barca what could have been a decisive away goal.Branislav Ivanovic: 8A real unsung hero on a great night for Chelsea, who depended massively on Ivanovic tucking in from right-back at the right times to offer cover through the middle. He did the job brillliantly.John Terry: 8A commanding presence – and voice – at the back as Chelsea soaked up wave after wave of pressure.Gary Cahill: 8After a shaky start it was arguably his best performance for Chelsea so far. Brilliant in a 15-minute spell in the second half when Barca were relentless.Ashley Cole: 9This was vintage Cole at his world-class best, with pace and ability in abundance. Great goal-line clearance from Fabregas, not to mention a last-ditch challenge to deny Sanchez.Jon Obi Mikel: 7Nothing spectacular, but that’s exactly what was required. Did his job with minimum fuss.Raul Meireles: 8Tremendously hardworking display to help prevent Chelsea being overrun in midfield and used the ball sensibly to give them some breathing space when possible.Frank Lampard: 9Incredible to think there was talk of Lampard being past it just a couple of months ago. A wonderful performance from the midfielder, who not only played his part in chasing down Barca’s stars but produced with the ball too. Great pass to Ramires in the build-up to Chelsea’s goal.Ramires: 8Just the man for a game like this. Unstoppable drive and energy – and great work to set up Drogba for the goal.Juan Mata: 5Definitely not the man for a game like this. Not his night. Struggled to get into the match before being substituted.Didier Drogba: 8Led the line really well. And on a night when Chelsea knew they had to convert a chance if it came their way, he delivered. Again.See also: Di Matteo: Chelsea’s old guard have proved doubters wrongDrogba strikes to give Chelsea first-leg victory over BarcaDrogba: We learnt the lessons of 2009Terry bullish about Chelsea’s second-leg chancesFollow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
The coastal town of East London might not be one of the nine 2010 Fifa World Cup™ host cities, but it is making strides to attract football fans looking for places to travel in June and July. “Our accommodation, tourism and hospitality establishments have lined themselves up to receive those that will be staying and passing by East London during this period,” the spokesperson for what is also known as Buffalo City, Samkelo Ngwenya, told Fifa.com. “On the outskirts of our city, our communities are ready to showcase to tourists the unique cultures and ‘ubuntu’ that South Africans are renowned for. This article was first published on Fifa.com “One of our biggest advantages to travellers is our centrality in South Africa,” Ngwenya said. “We are less than two hours away by air from all major cities (Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban), and a three-hour road trip from Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elizabeth, where eight World Cup games will be taking place.” Football has always competed with rugby and cricket in this part of the country. East London is home to cricket great Makhaya Ntini, who was also one of the draw assistants at the World Cup Final Draw in Cape Town in December. Probably the most famous footballer to emerge from East London is former Bafana Bafana player Brendon Augustine, who was part of the team that went to South Africa’s first Fifa World Cup in 1998. Less than 20 kilometres from East London is the Mdantsane township, the second biggest township in South Africa. The township has produced the majority of the country’s boxing world champions, including Welcome Ncita, Vuyani Bungu, Masibulele Makhepula. Fifa.com takes a look at some key attractions in the area. Inkwenkwezi Game Reserve Situated 30km outside East London, Inkwenkwezi Game Reserve is one of the area’s prime tourists attractions. The game reserve includes game drives and luxury accommodation. You can also enjoy mountain biking, hiking and other activities. Since it’s only five kilometres from the beaches and a river, it also offers canoeing, surfing and most other watersports. Chill at Chintsa One of the most impressive places in East London is Chintsa – the vast area that lies along the shores of the Indian Ocean. It is a perfect holiday destination, with lots of places to go to. One such place is the Buccaneers backpackers, located between Chintsa East and Chintsa West and regarded as one of the best backpackers in South Africa. You will also find a number of restaurants and other holiday destinations in the area, including Dwa-dwa Park, Crawfords Beach Lodge and Mangaliso Guest House. Enjoy the beaches Among the favourite activities for the locals is to take a walk along one of the city’s many beaches. When in East London, you have plenty of choices. Your first stop might be the Orient and Eastern Beach, situated next to the majority of the city’s hotels on the beachfront. However, you can also explore a number of other options, including Nahoon Beach, Gonubie and Beacon Bay. Kaiser’s Beach and Cove Rock, a few kilometres from the city en route to Port Elizabeth, offer excellent swimming and surfing. Steve Biko Garden of Remembrance Steve Biko, the brains behind the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa, was killed in police custody in 1978. The film Cry Freedom, which tells his story, helped awaken the world to the suffering and injustice of the fomer apartheid regime in South Africa. Biko was born in King William’s Town, about 25 minutes drive from East London, and his statue stands tall next to East London’s City Hall. Source: Fifa.com
Source: BuaNews 18 October 2010 The government and senior editors of South Africa’s major newspapers have agreed to take steps to improve relations between the authorities and the press in the country, with both parties agreeing on the need for a “vibrant, diverse and critical” media sector to safeguard South Africa’s democracy. A government delegation led by Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe and the South African National Editors Forum (Sanef) held a robust two-day meeting in Magaliesburg, North West on the weekend to discuss issues affecting the two parties – including the proposal for a media appeals tribunal. The last time the government met with Sanef was in 2001, when relations between the two hit an all-time low.Controvery over media tribunal proposal Tensions re-emerged in recent months following proposals by the ruling African National Congress (ANC) to establish a media tribunal in addition to the media’s self-regulation system. Many in the media have expressed concerns over the proposal, citing threats to freedom of the press. Government spokesperson Themba Maseko, speaking after the weekend’s meeting, said the parties had agreed on the need for a “vibrant, diverse and critical” media sector to safeguard South Africa’s constitutional democracy. “Sanef expressed concerns about the developments it views as threatening media freedom in the country … Government raised its concerns that it was at times vilified and treated unfairly by the media,” Maseko said. The government also raised issues around the diversity of media ownership, the quality and integrity of reporting, as well as the need for dissemination of information in a way that would help the country move forward. The ministers argued that the media’s self-regulatory mechanism failed to address issues such as reckless and inaccurate reporting. Sanef is currently reviewing the press ombudsman system in an attempt to make it more effective.Communication versus ‘gatekeeping’ Motlanthe said the Government Communication and Information System (GCIS) would be tasked with organising regular training sessions for communicators to enable them to deal with journalists better. This was after Sanef chairperson Mondli Makhanya expressed concerns that government communicators often acted like “gatekeepers” instead of releasing information to the public. “To us this is really serious, because we cannot allow a situation where people become gatekeepers whereas they are supposed to disseminate information,” Makhanya said. Speaking before the meeting, Makhanya said that the media would continue to fulfill its role as “watchdogs” while engaging in robust debate about what was best for South Africa. “We must accept that there will be differences, we will have tensions now and then, but that does not [have to] lead to hostility,” he said.Constitution the reference point It was agreed that similar meetings should to be held on an annual basis to deal with such challenges, which should be addressed with the understanding that South Africa’s fledgling democracy was in its formative stages. “The meeting agreed that the Constitution remains the central reference point and guiding principle of both the mandate of government and the role of the media, and that the legitimacy of both institutions remains firmly entrenched,” Maseko said. The government and the media shared interdependency within the Constitutional framework, and mutually acceptable norms would serve to strengthen the delivery of information to the public. Motlanthe said the government remained “fully committed” to the Constitution, and that it had no intention of doing anything that might undermine freedom of expression or the freedom of the media to function effectively. Motlanthe said discussions over the proposed media tribunal would continue until a “consensus” was reached by all role players. “We have undertaken to implement all that has been agreed on, and we will continue to engage on some issues with the hope that we may be able to find each other,” he said.
11 July 2014Australian-listed company Sunbird Energy is pushing ahead with the development of the Ibhubesi gas project off South Africa’s west coast, which could pave the way for a multi-billion rand investment that would significantly boost the country’s gas-to-electricity generation capacity.Last month, Sunbird announced that it had received all the necessary South African government approvals for its acquisition, from US company Forest Oil Corporation, of a 76% stake in Production Right Block 2A, which covers a 5 000 square kilometre area within the Orange Basin and contains the Ibhubesi gas project, South Africa’s largest undeveloped gas discovery.This established Sunbird as the operator of the gas field, with South African state oil and gas company PetroSA holding the remaining 24% of the licence.Block 2A is located 380 kilometres north-west of Cape Town and 70 kilometres off the coast of the Northern Cape province.According to Sunbird, over US$125-million has been invested in exploring and appraising the block since 2000, with seven of 11 wells drilled to date discovering commercial volumes of gas. And in March, the company announced that an independent assessment had determined that the block contained estimated prospective gas resources of 7.8-trillion cubic feet.In December, Sunbird signed a memorandum of understanding with South African state power company Eskom to jointly investigate supplying gas from Ibhubesi to Eskom’s 1 300 megawatt Ankerlig power station, to replace the plant’s current high-cost diesel feed stock.Eskom is also currently developing plans to convert Ankerlig from an open cycle gas turbine to a closed cycle gas turbine plant, so that it can run on gas.Sunbird managing director Will Barker said last month that South Africa’s energy market was both highly constrained and high value, “creating a unique opportunity for Sunbird as the most advanced project for the supply of energy for the domestic market.“We look forward to progressing our gas sales negotiations with Eskom for the supply of gas to the existing Ankerlig Power station that is currently run on expensive diesel, and further exploring Block 2A’s upside potential.”Barker said Sunbird was working to advance the project both technically and commercially, with upcoming milestones including completion of the preliminary field development plan, commencement of the front-end engineering and design studies, and progress on securing the necessary environmental approvals.SAinfo reporter
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Samantha Wander from Bellville and Leah Schwinn of New London, were scholarship winners at Commodity Classic.The National Corn Growers Association and the National Association of Wheat Growers, in conjunction with cosponsor BASF, honored college students from around the country with scholarships at Commodity Classic 2016 in New Orleans.This year, the William C. Berg Academic Excellence in Agriculture scholarships, created to foster promising agricultural leaders for the future, again provided five winners with $1,000 for use in pursuing a degree in an agriculture-related field.Scholarship recipients included Leah Schwinn of New London, Ohio, a junior studying agricultural communications and human animal interactions at The Ohio State University. She wants to get her doctorate in occupational therapy.“We got to see a little bit of New Orleans and to network with all of the different agricultural companies that are here at Commodity Classic. It has been a pretty great experience,” Schwinn said. “Last summer I interned with the AgrAbility program at Ohio State and I got to see how they worked with people in the ag industry who have been injured or have some sort of medical setback. I got to work with them on the communications end of things and in the future I’d like to work more on the medical side of things.”In addition, Samantha Wander from Bellville, an Ohio State University freshman in agriscience education, received one of the national scholarships from NAWG and BASF.“I’d like to be a high school teacher, possibly in an urban area where I can help kids get a grip on what agriculture is and help to change some of the misperceptions they may have about agriculture,” Wander said.“NCGA is pleased to partner with BASF to offer this scholarship opportunity to another crop of outstanding students,” said Chip Bowling, NCGA President. “Our legacy depends on encouraging the next generation to embark on careers in agriculture.”For more information on the scholarship program, click here.“Fostering a successful, sustainable future for agriculture is the catalyst behind BASF’s Crop Protection business,” said Paul Rea, Senior Vice President, Crop Protection, North America, BASF. “The future starts with bright minds, and helping young individuals venture toward a career in agriculture is important to BASF.”
Rachel Dorman, MS & Heidi Radunovich, PhDTraumatic events can have long lasting impacts on an individual, and military members returning from deployment could be coping with exposure to multiple traumatic events. Traumatic events can result in PTSD, anxiety, isolation, and depression. Nelson Goff and colleagues (2014) sought to not only learn more about military members coping with traumas but also what happens when their partners have experienced trauma as well.The researchers specifically sought to learn more about dual trauma couples (DTC) and how having 2 partners coping with trauma impacts the relationship. The study involved 11 married couples, consisting of 11 male soldiers and their female partners (some of whom had a military background). In five of the couples, only the soldier was found to have experienced a high level of traumatic experiences (single trauma couples, or STC); in the other six couples, both members scored as having had a high level of traumatic experience (DTC). Participants had to be 18 years or older, in their relationship for a year or more, and reported no substance abuse or domestic violence during the initial screening. Participants were interviewed separately from their partner, and were also given written measures, which included the Traumatic Events Questionnaire (TEQ), the Purdue Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale – Revised, the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale.[Flickr, 20150718-Z-SW098-196 by Maryland National Guard, CC BY-ND 2.0] Retrieved on September 17, 2015The researchers found communication problems and trauma triggers to be unique themes to DTC as compared to STC. The researchers found that eleven of the twelve participants in this DTC category reported communication problems, such as not being open and sharing information and the avoidance of conversations related to traumatic events. Trauma related triggers, such as being startled by daily events, were identified by the researchers in nine of the twelve participants in the DTC category. Most of the STC participants described positive couple communication (e.g., staying connected while deployed, perspective taking, and being able to discuss issues openly).The researchers recommend for clinicians working with military couples who have experienced trauma to evaluate for communication problems, trauma triggers, and issues with relationship roles and intimacy. The researchers also highlight the importance of practitioners being more aware of DTC, and the fact that when both members of a couple are coping with trauma, this can add additional stress to a couple’s relationship. To learn more about how to help military members dealing with trauma check out our Resource Discovery on Trauma-informed Care, our previous blog on EFT for Couples Affected by Trauma, or our previous blog on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: Prevalence and Effects on Couples.References Nelson Goff, B., Irwin, L., Cox, M., Devine, S., Summers, K., & Schmitz, A. (2014). A qualitative study on single-trauma and dual-trauma military couples. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 6(3), p. 216 – 223. Doi: 10.1037/a0036697This post was written by Rachel Dorman, M.S. and Heidi Radunovich, PhD, members of the MFLN Family Development (FD) team which aims to support the development of professionals working with military families. Find out more about the Military Families Learning Network FD concentration on our website, on Facebook, on Twitter, You Tube, and on LinkedIn.