The genetic structure of Patagonian toothfish populations in the Atlantic and western Indian Ocean Sectors of the Southern Ocean (SO) were analysed using partial sequences of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene and seven microsatellite loci. Both haplotype frequency data (F ST>0.906, P<0.01) and microsatellite genotype frequency data (F ST=0.0141–0.0338, P<0.05) indicated that populations of toothfish from around the Falkland Islands were genetically distinct from those at South Georgia (eastern Atlantic Sector SO), around Bouvet Island (western Atlantic Sector SO) and the Ob Seamount (western Indian Ocean Sector of the SO). Genetic differentiation between these populations is thought to result from hydrographic isolation, as the sites are separated by two, full-depth, ocean-fronts and topographic isolation, as samples are separated by deep water. The South Georgia, Bouvet and Ob Seamount samples were characterised by an identical haplotype. However, microsatellite genotype frequencies showed genetic differentiation between South Georgia samples and those obtained from around Bouvet Island and nearby seamounts (F ST=0.0037, P<0.05). These areas are separated by large geographic distance and water in excess of 3,000 m deep, below the distributional range of toothfish (<2,200 m). No significant genetic differentiation was detected between samples around Bouvet Island and the Ob Seamount although comparisons may have been influenced by low sample size. These localities are linked by topographic features, including both ridges and seamounts, that may act as oceanic “stepping stones” for migration between these populations. As for other species of deep-sea fish, Patagonian toothfish populations are genetically structured at the regional and sub-regional scales.
Airborne radar sounding over the Thwaites Glacier (TG) catchment and its surroundings provides the first comprehensive view of subglacial topography in this dynamic part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) and reveals that TG is underlain by a single, broad basin fed by a dendritic pattern of valleys, while Smith Glacier lies within an extremely deep, narrow trench. Subglacial topography in the TG catchment slopes inland from a broad, low-relief coastal sill to the thickest ice of the WAIS and makes deep connections to both Pine Island Glacier and the Ross Sea Embayment enabling dynamic interactions across the WAIS during deglaciation. Simple isostatic rebound modeling shows that most of this landscape would be submarine after deglaciation, aside from an island chain near the present-day Ross-Amundsen ice divide. The lack of topographic confinement along TG’s eastern margin implies that it may continue to widen in response to grounding line retreat.
The aim of this study was to use data for gastropod and bivalve molluscs to determine whether the fauna of the Southern Ocean is sufficiently well known to establish robust biogeographical and macroecological patterns. We chose molluscs for this work because they have been collected by almost every biological expedition to Antarctica, and are relatively well known taxonomically. Sampling of the continental shelf fauna is reasonably full and extensive, although new species are still being described and there are significant gaps in sampling off Wilkes Land and in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas. Species richness was highest in those areas that have been subject to the most intense research activity and this pattern remained even after correction for sampling intensity. The low species richness of the Southern Ocean molluscan fauna compared with many tropical sites is confirmed, and is related principally to the absence of the large number of rare taxa that characterize some tropical assemblages. There is as yet no convincing evidence for a latitudinal cline in molluscan diversity within the Southern Ocean. Multivariate analyses defined biogeographical provinces very similar to those established previously, though they also identified a number of finer-scale sub-provinces including a small area of high diversity off Enderby Land. Most Southern Ocean gastropods and bivalves are rare, with limited distributions; relatively few taxa have circumpolar distributions.
Animal responses to changing environments are most commonly studied in relation to temperature change. The current paradigm for marine ectotherms is that temperature limits are set through oxygen limitation. Oxygen limitation leads to progressive reductions in capacity to perform work or activity, and these are more important and proximate measures of a population’s ability to survive. Here we measured the ability of a large Antarctic clam to rebury when removed from sediment at temperatures between −1.5 and 7.5 °C and at three oxygen concentrations, 10.2, 20.5 and 27.7%. The proportion of the population capable of reburying declined rapidly and linearly with temperature from around 65% at 0 °C to 0% at 6 °C in normoxia (20.5% O2). Decreasing oxygen to 10.2% reduced temperature limits for successful burial by around 2 °C, and increasing oxygen to 27.7% raised the limits by 1–1.5 °C. There was an interactive effect of body size and temperature on burying: the temperature limits of larger individuals were lower than smaller animals. Similarly, these size limits were increased by increasing oxygen availability. Considering data for all temperatures and oxygen levels, the fastest burying rates occurred at 3 °C, which is 2 °C above the maximum summer temperature at this site.
We present an analysis of 8 years of meridional line-of-sight ionospheric plasma velocity measurements from the Halley SuperDARN radar which investigates the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle on the scaling exponents of the first three order velocity structure functions. We only use velocity measurements made poleward of the open/closed magnetic field line boundary in the nightside ionosphere. The measured scaling exponents are consistent with multifractal Kraichnan-Iroshnikov turbulence for all clock angles but with varying intermittency that decreases to zero during purely northward IMF conditions. We thus propose that intermittency is inherited from the solar wind but also discuss other possible reasons for this relationship. Citation: Abel, G. A., M. P. Freeman, and G. Chisham (2009), IMF clock angle control of multifractality in ionospheric velocity fluctuations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L19102, doi:10.1029/2009GL040336.
The evolution and dynamics of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) have hitherto largely been reconstructed from onshore and shallow marine glacial geological and geomorphological data. This reconstruction has been problematic because these sequences and data are spatially and temporally incomplete and fragmentary. In order to enhance BIIS reconstruction, we present a compilation of new and previously published ice-rafted detritus (IRD) flux and concentration data from high-resolution sediment cores recovered from the NE Atlantic deep-sea continental slope adjacent to the last BIIS. These cores are situated adjacent to the full latitudinal extent of the last BIIS and cover Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 2 and 3. Age models are based on radiocarbon dating and graphical tuning of abundances of the polar planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral (% Nps) to the Greenland GISP2 ice core record. Multiple IRD fingerprinting techniques indicate that, at the selected locations, most IRD are sourced from adjacent MIS ice streams except in the centre of Heinrich (H) layers in which IRD shows a prominent Laurentide Ice Sheet provenance. IRD flux data are interpreted with reference to a conceptual model explaining the relations between flux, North Atlantic hydrography and ice dynamics. Both positive and rapid negative mass balance can cause increases, and prominent peaks, in IRD flux. First-order interpretation of the IRD record indicates the timing of the presence of the MIS with an actively calving marine margin. The records show a coherent latitudinal, but partly phased, signal during MIS 3 and 2. Published data indicate that the last MIS initiated during the MIS 514 cooling transition; renewed growth just before H5 (46 ka) was succeeded by very strong millennial-scale variability apparently corresponding with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles closely coupled to millennial-scale climate variability in the North Atlantic region involving latitudinal migration of the North Atlantic Polar Front. This indicates that the previously defined “precursor events” are not uniquely associated with H events but are part of the millennial-scale variability. Major growth of the ice sheet occurred after 29 ka with the Barra Ice Stream attaining a shelf-edge position and generating turbiditic flows on the Barra-Donegal Fan at similar to 27 ka. The ice sheet reached its maximum extent at H2 (24 ka), earlier than interpreted in previous studies. Rapid retreat, initially characterised by peak IRD flux, during Greenland Interstadial 2 (23 ka) was followed by readvance between 22 and 16 ka. Readvance during HI was only characterised by BIIS ice streams draining central dome(s) of the ice sheet, and was followed by rapid deglaciation and ice exhaustion. The evidence for a calving margin and IRD supply from the MIS during Greenland Stadial 1 (Younger Dryas event) is equivocal. The timing of the initiation. maximum extent, deglacial and readvance phases of the BUS interpreted from the IRD flux record is strongly supported by recent independent data from both the Irish Sea and North Sea sectors of the ice sheet. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lévy flights and fractional Brownian motion have become exemplars of the heavy-tailed jumps and longrangedmemory widely seen in physics. Natural time series frequently combine both effects, and linear fractionalstable motion lfsm is a model process of this type, combining alpha-stable jumps with a memory kernel.In contrast complex physical spatiotemporal diffusion processes where both the above effects compete have formany years been modeled using the fully fractional kinetic equation for the continuous-time random walkCTRW, with power laws in the probability density functions of both jump size and waiting time. We derivethe analogous kinetic equation for lfsm and show that it has a diffusion coefficient with a power law in timerather than having a fractional time derivative like the CTRW. We discuss some preliminary results on thescaling of burst “sizes” and “durations” in lfsm time series, with applications to modeling existing observationsin space physics and elsewhere.
Ten geolocators (light-level data loggers) were attached to Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) at a breeding site in the northeastern USA in 2007 and 2008; six were retrieved (five with useful data) in 2008 and 2009. The birds wintered in four discrete areas on the north and east coasts of South America, from Guyana (6–7°N) to northeastern Argentina (36–42°S); three remained within restricted areas for most or all of the winter, whereas two ranged more widely. They left the breeding area at various dates between 1 August and 14 September; three migrated directly from the breeding area while two first moved southwest to stage near Cape Hatteras. All five birds flew directly to the vicinity of Puerto Rico, then moved along the north and east coasts of South America, staging at scattered locations for periods of 3–11 d, before reaching their winter quarters at various dates from 6 September to 26 October. Two birds left their winter quarters on 2 March and 4 April, staged in northern Brazil for 47 and 6 d, then traveled via the Bahamas to reach the breeding site on 1 May. During breeding and post-breeding periods, the birds spent a mean of 7 min each day and virtually no time at night resting on the water, but during the rest of the year they often rested on the water for up to 6 h by day and up to 11 h at night. Leg-mounted geolocators caused several adverse effects but did not reduce survival.
Marine systems have traditionally been thought of as “open” with few barriers to gene flow. In particular, many marine organisms in the Southern Ocean purportedly possess circumpolar distributions that have rarely been well verified. Here, we use the highly abundant and endemic Southern Ocean brittle star Ophionotus victoriae to examine genetic structure and determine whether barriers to gene flow have existed around the Antarctic continent. Ophionotus victoriae possesses feeding planktotrophic larvae with presumed high dispersal capability, but a previous study revealed genetic structure along the Antarctic Peninsula. To test the extent of genetic differentiation within O. victoriae, we sampled from the Ross Sea through the eastern Weddell Sea. Whereas two mitochondrial DNA markers (16S rDNA and COI) were employed to allow comparison to earlier work, a 2b-RAD single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach allowed sampling of loci across the genome. Mitochondrial data from 414 individuals suggested three major lineages, but 2b-RAD data generated 1,999 biallelic loci that identified four geographically distinct groups from 89 samples. Given the greater resolution by SNP data, O. victoriae can be divided into geographically distinct populations likely representing multiple species. Specific historical scenarios that explain current population structure were examined with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses. Although the Bransfield Strait region shows high diversity possibly due to mixing, our results suggest that within the recent past, dispersal processes due to strong currents such as the Antarctic Circumpolar Current have not overcome genetic subdivision presumably due to historical isolation, questioning the idea of large open circumpolar populations in the Southern Ocean.
Multidecadal surface temperature changes may be forced by natural as well as anthropogenic factors, or arise unforced from the climate system. Distinguishing these factors is essential for estimating sensitivity to multiple climatic forcings and the amplitude of the unforced variability. Here we present 2,000-year-long global mean temperature reconstructions using seven different statistical methods that draw from a global collection of temperature-sensitive palaeoclimate records. Our reconstructions display synchronous multidecadal temperature fluctuations that are coherent with one another and with fully forced millennial model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 across the Common Era. A substantial portion of pre-industrial (1300–1800 CE) variability at multidecadal timescales is attributed to volcanic aerosol forcing. Reconstructions and simulations qualitatively agree on the amplitude of the unforced global mean multidecadal temperature variability, thereby increasing confidence in future projections of climate change on these timescales. The largest warming trends at timescales of 20 years and longer occur during the second half of the twentieth century, highlighting the unusual character of the warming in recent decades.